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Georgia and the ACA’s Medicaid expansion

Georgia's partial expansion takes effect in 2021, but with a work requirement, no enhanced federal funding, and covering far fewer people than full expansion

Key takeaways

ACA’s Medicaid eligibility expansion in Georgia

Georgia enacted legislation (SB106) in 2019 that allows the state to seek federal permission to expand Medicaid, but only to people earning up to 100% of the poverty level (as opposed to 138%, as called for in the ACA).

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In November 2019, the state unveiled an 1115 waiver proposal that calls for partial Medicaid expansion, effective in July 2021, that would cover adults age 19-64 with income up to 100% of the poverty level, as long as they work at least 80 hours per month (the work requirement can also be fulfilled via various other “community engagement” activities, including job training, higher education, or community service, although the program does have time limits on vocational training and job readiness programs).

Georgia’s full proposal, called Georgia Pathways, can be viewed here. The state sought public comments on the proposal in late 2019, and most who commented did not support it. The state submitted the proposal to CMS in late December 2019, and approval was granted in October 2020. The state’s partial expansion of Medicaid is expected to take effect July 1, 2021. Although it’s only a partial expansion of Medicaid and has a work requirement, it will technically eliminate the coverage gap that currently exists in Georgia.

As part of the waiver proposal, Georgia asked CMS to provide the state with full Medicaid expansion funding (i.e., covering 90% of the cost), despite the fact that the state would only be implementing a partial expansion of Medicaid. A similar request from Utah was rejected by the Trump Administration earlier in 2019, and CMS followed the same process for Georgia: The federal government will not provide the 90% funding match for Georgia’s partial Medicaid expansion, but will instead pay the state’s normal federal matching rate of 67%. This means it will cost Georgia more to cover the expanded Medicaid population than it would if the state were to simply expand Medicaid fully, as called for in the ACA.

Although the Trump Administration supports Medicaid work requirements and has approved them for several other states, their legal future is uncertain — they’ve been blocked by court rulings in Arkansas, Kentucky, and New Hampshire, and some other states have suspended their work requirements due to pending lawsuits (it’s worth noting that the Trump administration is asking the Supreme Court to weigh in on Medicaid work requirements after the lower court blocked them). As of 2020, due to the COVID pandemic, Medicaid work requirements have been suspended in all states that had implemented them or been in the process of implementing them. The federal government is providing states with additional federal Medicaid funding to address the pandemic, but a condition of receiving the funding is that coverage cannot be terminated, which would render a work requirement meaningless for the time being. Georgia’s waiver approval notes that we don’t yet know how the pandemic landscape will look by July 2021, when Georgia’s partial Medicaid expansion and work requirement will take effect, but that modifications could be made as necessary at that point.

Under the Georgia Pathways program, enrollees must report their community engagement on a monthly basis. But if they comply with the community engagement requirement (including reporting) for at least six consecutive months, they’ll be exempt from the reporting requirement and will only have to report changes, if applicable. Eligibility will continue to be redetermined annually.

Georgia Pathways enrollees with income above 50% of the poverty level will have cost-sharing and monthly premiums. The premiums will range from $7 to $11/month, with a lower additional rate for a spouse, plus a tobacco surcharge if applicable. Members will also be able to earn reward points for certain healthy behaviors and use the points to receive dental and vision care, over the counter drugs, and to cover copays for medical care.

Eligible residents who meet the work requirement rules will have to select a plan and pay their initial premium (if applicable) in order to enroll, with coverage taking effect the first of the following month (i.e., no retroactive effective dates). People deemed eligible for Georgia Pathways who also have access to employer-sponsored health coverage will be required to enroll in the employer-sponsored plan, with financial assistance from the Georgia Medicaid program, if this option is deemed cost-effective for the state.

Georgia Medicaid is currently only available to non-disabled, non-pregnant adults if they are caring for a minor child and have a household income that doesn’t exceed 35% of the poverty level (for a household of two in 2020, this amounts to just a little more than $6,000 in total annual income). Non-disabled adults without dependent children are not eligible for Medicaid in Georgia regardless of how low their income is. The Georgia Pathways program will expand coverage to both parents and non-parents with household income under the poverty level, as long as they comply with the various provisions (work requirement, premiums, etc.) in the program.

The Kaiser Family Foundation estimates that there are 269,000 people in Georgia who are in the Medicaid coverage gap, which means their household incomes are below the poverty level (so they’re not eligible for subsidies in the exchange) and yet they are not eligible for Medicaid under the state’s current rules. Presumably, it’s expected that the majority of these individuals wouldn’t comply with the premiums and/or the work requirement.

It’s also noteworthy that if Georgia were to fully expand Medicaid as called for in the ACA, the state would be guaranteed to receive 90% federal funding (i.e., no waiver approval necessary), and an estimated 600,000 to 700,000 people would gain coverage. Instead, the state is moving forward with a plan that will cover only a fraction of those individuals, and they’re forfeiting the enhanced federal funding match that would be provided if they fully expanded Medicaid. It’s also likely that the work requirement will face the same legal challenges that have hindered similar programs in other states.

Georgia’s history with Medicaid expansion

As of May 2020, 23% of Georgia residents were uninsured — the state has the fourth highest uninsured rate in the U.S. Georgia is leaving billions of dollars on the table and over half a million people without Medicaid coverage by passing up federal funding to expand Medicaid.

Two laws designed to make expansion difficult were enacted during the 2014 legislative session. HB 990 prohibits Medicaid expansion without legislative approval (the 2019 legislation that triggered the Georgia Pathways proposal expressly allows for Medicaid expansion for those earning up to the poverty level), while HB 943 prohibits state and local employees from advocating for Medicaid expansion.

By the spring of 2016, Medicaid expansion began to seem within reach in Georgia, fueled in part by support from hospitals facing severe financial challenges. The state has raised Medicaid reimbursement rates for providers, including OB-GYNs in the state, in an effort to keep providers solvent and able to accept Medicaid patients. And Republican lawmakers began indicating that they might be open to a privatized version of Medicaid expansion, like the model used in Arkansas.

Although then-Governor Nathan Deal has long been opposed to Medicaid expansion, he began to express a willingness to consider a modified version of expansion, as did more GOP lawmakers in Georgia. In June 2016, talking about the possibility of Medicaid expansion during the 2017 legislative session, Deal said “I still have the same concerns. And you won’t see anyone advocating a wholesale Medicaid expansion. But I do think there will be variations that will be discussed, and I look forward to talking to members of the General Assembly.”

However, there was no real progress on Medicaid expansion in Georgia until the partial expansion proposal was announced in 2019. Governor Brian Kemp, who took office in 2019, has been steadfastly opposed to full Medicaid expansion, although he views the Georgia Pathways program as a conservative compromise aimed at helping people who are working but not able to afford health coverage.

Against the backdrop of Covid-19, Georgia Democrats renewed calls for Medicaid expansion during the 2020 legislative session. Even without expansion of the program under ACA provisions, Medicaid enrollment in Georgia grew substantially in 2020 with Covid-19 related significant job losses driving down household income, which in turn made more people eligible for Georgia Medicaid under existing enrollment criteria.

Georgia has not accepted federal Medicaid expansion

  • 2,159,944 – Number of Georgians covered by Medicaid/CHIP as of May 2021
  • 678,000 – Number of additional Georgia residents who would be covered if the state accepted expansion
  • 269,000 – Number of people who have NO realistic access to health insurance without Medicaid expansion
  • $3.5 billion – Federal money Georgia is leaving on the table in 2022 by not expanding Medicaid

Who is eligible for Medicaid in Georgia?

As of April 2020, criteria for enrollment in Georgia Medicaid are set at the following levels for non-disabled adults:

  • Children up to age 1 with family income up to 205% of federal poverty level (FPL)
  • Children ages 1-5 with family income up to 149% of FPL
  • Children ages 6-18 with family income up to 133% of FPL
  • Pregnant women with family income up to 220% of FPL
  • Parents of minor children with family income up to 35% of FPL

How does Medicaid provide financial help to Medicare beneficiaries in Georgia?

Many Medicare beneficiaries receive assistance from Medicaid with Medicare premiums, prescription drug costs, and expenses not covered by Medicare – including long-term care.

Our guide to financial assistance for Medicare enrollees in Georgia includes overviews of these programs, including Medicaid nursing home benefits, Extra Help, and eligibility guidelines for assistance.

How do I enroll in Medicaid in Georgia?

There are several way you can apply for Medicaid in Georgia:

  • Complete an online application at either Georgia Gateway or
  • Call the Division of Family and Children Services (DFCS) information line at 1-877-423-4746. You will be directed to a local office that can help you.
  • Complete a paper application. Contact your DFCS county office and ask them to mail you an application. You can return it by mail, fax, or in person.

Georgia Medicaid history

The federal legislation authorizing Medicaid was enacted in 1965, and Georgia implemented its program in October of 1967. The Georgia Medicaid program is managed by the Georgia Department of Community Health (DCH).

A major trend in state Medicaid programs has been the move from fee-for-service to managed care arrangements. In fee-for-service, the doctor, hospital or clinic is reimbursed for each visit, test or procedure performed. In managed care, the health care provider gets a set fee each month for each person covered, regardless of the actual services provided.

Georgia Medicaid first adopted managed care in 1993 and transitioned to a statewide Medicaid managed care system called Georgia Families in 2006. Nearly all Medicaid beneficiaries — including low-income adults and children, foster care children, and pregnant women —must enroll in Georgia Families. However, individuals with disabilities or long-term care needs do not receive services through Georgia Families.

Despite the fact that Georgia has not expanded Medicaid, enrollment in Medicaid/CHIP in Georgia has grown by about 18% since late 2013. Enrollment was 1,535,090 as of September 2013. As of July 2019, enrollment had grown to 1,808,764. The new enrollees are all eligible based on Georgia’s existing eligibility guidelines, but enrollment has still increased fairly significantly, due in large part to the outreach and enrollment efforts of Navigators and enrollment assisters, and marketing associated with the ACA’s exchanges.

According KFF, over 2 million people are enrolled in Georgia Medicaid as of May 2021. Eligibility for and enrollment in Georgia Medicaid grew rapidly through 2020 driven by the Covid-19 pandemic.

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Apply for Medicaid in Georgia

Online at either Georgia Gateway or; in person (Call 1-877-423-4746 for directions to a local office.) Submit a paper application by mail, fax or in person. (Contact your DFCS county office for an application.)

Eligibility: Children up to age 1 with family income up to 205% of FPL; children 1-5 with family income up to 149% of FPL; children 6-18 with family income up to 133% of FPL; pregnant women with family income up to 220% of FPL; parents with family income up to 35% of FPL; individuals who are elderly, blind and disabled (See income and resource limits.)

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