Maine opted for a federally facilitated health insurance exchange when the Affordable Care Act began its first open enrollment period. The state remains among the 19 states that, to this date, have held out on Medicaid expansion under the ACA.
Have these decisions impacted Maine’s public health and access to healthcare? A look at Maine’s performance in national rankings, health insurance enrollment numbers, and state legislation will offer insight on the health insurance landscape in The Pine Tree State.
Maine health ratings
Maine ranked 11th in overall health on the 2015 Scorecard on State Health System Performance. The scorecard, compiled by The Commonwealth Fund, compares the states and the District of Columbia on health-related measures. Categories include Access, Prevention & Treatment, Avoidable Hospital Use & Cost, Healthy Lives, and Equity.
Maine ranked 16th in Access, performing better than the national average in number of uninsured adults, adults who went without care due to cost in the past year, at-risk adults without a routine doctor visit in the past two years, and adults without a dental visit in the past year. The state ranked 1st for Prevention & Treatment, with higher than average percentages of adults and children with a usual source of care and a medical home, adults and children with preventive care visits, and children who received key vaccines.
See Maine’s scorecard for additional details on its ranking.
The 2015 edition of America’s Health Rankings also provides state-by-state health rankings. Maine ranked 15th, an improvement from 20th in the 2014 edition. Again, high childhood immunization and uninsured rates were among the state’s strongest-performing health measures. The number of primary care physicians and disparity in health status also contributed to Maine’s ranking. Maine’s public health funding and number of dentists negatively impacted its ranking.
Yet another resource for public health information is the 2015 edition of Trust for America’s Health. You will find scores on various health measures for Maine and the other states.
Finally, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Population Health Institute at the University of Wisconsin have created a tool with county-level health rankings for Maine.
Is Obamacare affecting the uninsured rate in Maine?
Following the national trend, the uninsured rate in Maine dropped after the ACA’s individual mandate went into effect.
In 2013, Maine’s uninsured rate was 16.1 percent according to Gallup. The rate dropped 4.5 percentage points to 11.6 percent by the end of 2014. Nationally, the uninsured rate dropped 3.5 percentage points from 17.3 percent to 13.8 percent.
By mid-2015, Maine’s uninsured rate dropped another 6.7 percentage points to 9.4 percent, still better than the national uninsured rate of 11.7 percent and better than the 13.4 percent uninsured rate among other states that have not embraced the ACA (i.e., those that have not implemented a state-run marketplace or expanded Medicaid, or have only implemented one of those measures).
2017 health insurance plans and rates
Maine’s individual health insurance market includes five carriers; three of them will offer on-exchange plans for 2017. They include the following:
- Community Health Options
- Harvard Pilgrim HMOs
Currently, the exchange’s overall weighted average rate increase is 20.6 percent; however, proposed rates have yet to be approved.
In addition to the three carriers listed above, these two carriers will offer individual plans outside of Maine’s exchange: Harvard Pilgrim PPO and Aetna. Aetna was set to offer on-exchange plans in Maine for 2016, but announced in August that it would no longer participate.
Maine enrollment in qualified health plans
More than 44,000 Maine residents signed up for qualified health plans (QHPs) during the ACA’s initial open enrollment period. That figure translates to about 36 percent of the estimated eligible market in Maine, more than the national average of 28 percent.
Exchange enrollment reached 84,059 people during 2016 open enrollment. By March 31, effectuated enrollment reached 75,240 and nearly 85 percent were receiving premium subsidies. Maine’s 2016 effectuated enrollment was 12.5 percent higher than the previous year.
Maine and the Affordable Care Act
When Congress voted on the Affordable Care Act in 2010, Maine’s senators voted against the measures, while its two representatives voted for it. Sen. Olympia Snowe retired in 2013, and Sen. Angus King now represents Maine. King is generally supportive of the Affordable Care Act. Sen. Susan and Rep. Chellie Pingree remain in office. Rep. Michael Michaud, a Democrat, left office and was succeeded by Rep. Bruce Poliquin, a Republican, in 2015.
In both 2011 and 2012, the Maine legislature considered bills to establish a state-run health insurance marketplace. However, the bills were not passed. Gov. Paul LePage, a Republican, announced in late 2012 that Maine would default to the federally facilitated exchange.
LePage is firmly opposed to the ACA. In addition to opposing a state-run marketplace, he repeatedly vetoed legislation to expand Medicaid. LePage faced current U.S. Rep. Michael Michaud, a Democrat, and independent Eliot Culter in the November 2014 gubernatorial election. Both Michaud and Cutler supported Medicaid expansion. LePage was re-elected, ending hopes that the state might move ahead with expansion under a new governor.
Maine Medicaid Expansion
According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, 38,000 Mainers are excluded from Medicaid given the state’s decision against expanding the federal-state health insurance program for low-income residents. Kaiser also estimates that 24,000 people are in the coverage gap, meaning they don’t qualify for Maine’s Medicaid program or for premium subsidies to help offset the cost of purchasing a QHP policy through the marketplace.
Without Medicaid expansion in Maine, non-disabled adults without dependent children are not eligible for coverage. Parents of dependent children qualify for Medicaid if their household income is less than 105 percent of the federal poverty level – about $20,500 for a family of three.
Visit the MaineCare website for information about Maine’s Medicaid programs.
Other ACA reform provisions
The Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Program was included in the Affordable Care Act to increase competition and consumer choice. Twenty-four CO-OPs, including Maine Community Health Options, received loans totaling $2.09 billion as of January 2014. Maine Community Health Options received about $64 million.
As of September 15, 2016, all but six Obamacare CO-OPs had announced their closure. Maine’s CO-OP, which has been renamed Maine and New Hampshire Community Health Options, was not among them. However, enrollment in CHO’s individual plans is currently frozen. The plan has requested an average rate increase of 22.8 percent for 2017.
In an HHS report published in July 2015, Community Health Options was the only CO-OP with a positive net income in 2014. That was not the case in 2015.
The carrier ended 2015 with $74 million in losses, and Maine’s Insurance Superintendent proposed putting the CO-OP in receivership and cancelling a portion of its plans. CMS did not allow this action to be taken.
CHO has fared better in 2016. Claims were lower than expected, administrative costs were reduced, and the CO-OP did not have to draw down as much from reserves as anticipated.
Medicare in the state of Maine
Maine’s Medicare enrollees have traditionally been about 80 percent individuals who qualify based on age alone and 20 percent who qualify as the result of disability. Maine spends about $7,678 annually per enrollee and ranks 38th in total spending on Medicare with $2.3 billion per year.
Maine’s Medicare recipients can choose a Medicare Advantage plan instead of Original Medicare. These plans offer some additional benefits beyond traditional Medicare, and about 22 percent of Maine Medicare beneficiaries choose Medicare Advantage compared with 32 percent nationwide. Fifty percent of Medicare beneficiaries in Maine have a Medicare Part D plan for stand-alone prescription drug coverage. Nationwide, 45 percent of Medicare enrollees have Part D.
State-based health reform legislation